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  1. #21
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    Default Re: Pennsylvania 27 deer from Bedford County farm test positive for CWD

    Quote Originally Posted by brewguy View Post
    I got my license for the first time in years in order to take my kids hunting. I have to say this makes me not want to get a deer, I suppose the odds are they don't have it, still it is messed up.
    Was this introduced by anti-hunting scientists?
    Ungawa Memorial Shoot - WAS Sunday! Nov 12 - CLICK HERE for Details

  2. #22
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    Default Re: Pennsylvania 27 deer from Bedford County farm test positive for CWD

    Quote Originally Posted by Sandcut View Post
    You make a convincing (and scary) argument. Let's just hope it can't jump species (although there's no reason why it shouldn't since it doesn't appear to be a species specific protein).
    If it's anything like mad cow I don't think we have much to worry about. I think only a couple hundred people ended up getting it and they estimate over a million people were exposed. Here's a good website on CWD.

    http://cwd-info.org/faq/
    I heard it on the Internet, it must be true.

  3. #23
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    Default Re: Pennsylvania 27 deer from Bedford County farm test positive for CWD

    Quote Originally Posted by Emptymag View Post
    Was this introduced by anti-hunting scientists?
    Yes, right around the same time as the insurance industry released all the coyotes. It was to keep down the number of deer strike claims.

    They tried sharks with laser beams, but the sharks kept suffocating in the woods.
    "How feeble is the mindset to accept defenselessnes."

  4. #24
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    Default Re: Pennsylvania 27 deer from Bedford County farm test positive for CWD

    I'd be more inclined to hunt even knowing there could be a shark with a friggin laser around the next tree than to hunt what could be disease riddled deer.

    Seems a good way to snuff out the desire for people to go hunting.

    I've seen more crazy conspiracy theories than that.
    Ungawa Memorial Shoot - WAS Sunday! Nov 12 - CLICK HERE for Details

  5. #25
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    Default Re: Pennsylvania 27 deer from Bedford County farm test positive for CWD

    I am not a conspiratist but I immediately questioned the same.

  6. #26
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    Default Re: Pennsylvania 27 deer from Bedford County farm test positive for CWD

    Quote Originally Posted by Sandcut View Post
    Then don't be in contact with other people's urine and feces.

    Nothing that I've read has this being transmitted by casual contact. It's either contact with waste products or cadavers. What's really scary is that the prions aren't as affected by adverse environmental conditions as are bacteria or viruses. They're persistant and could potentially be picked up just by touching the ground where a deer pooped weeks before. You would still likely have to have the prion find its way into your mouth, but count how many times in a day you touch your face near your mouth.
    1: J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1994 Jun;57(6):757-8

    Transmission of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease to a chimpanzee by electrodes contaminated during neurosurgery.

    Gibbs CJ Jr, Asher DM, Kobrine A, Amyx HL, Sulima MP, Gajdusek DC.

    Laboratory of Central Nervous System Studies, National Institute of

    Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health,

    Bethesda, MD 20892.

    Stereotactic multicontact electrodes used to probe the cerebral cortex of a middle aged woman with progressive dementia were previously implicated in the accidental transmission of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) to two younger patients. The diagnoses of CJD have been confirmed for all three cases. More than two years after their last use in humans, after three cleanings and repeated sterilisation in ethanol and formaldehyde vapour, the electrodes were implanted in the cortex of a chimpanzee. Eighteen months later the animal became ill with CJD. This finding serves to re-emphasise the potential danger posed by reuse of instruments contaminated with the agents of spongiform encephalopathies, even after scrupulous attempts to clean them.

    PMID: 8006664 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/...?dopt=Abstract


    New studies on the heat resistance of hamster-adapted scrapie agent: Threshold survival after ashing at 600C suggests an inorganic template of replication

    http://www.pnas.org/content/97/7/3418.full


    Prion Infected Meat-and-Bone Meal Is Still Infectious after Biodiesel Production

    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2493038/


    Detection of protease-resistant cervid prion protein in water from a CWD-endemic area

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/art...n0303_0171.pdf


    A Quantitative Assessment of the Amount of Prion Diverted to Category 1 Materials and Wastewater During Processing

    http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/1...922.x/abstract


    Rapid assessment of bovine spongiform encephalopathy prion inactivation by heat treatment in yellow grease produced in the industrial manufacturing process of meat and bone meals

    http://transmissiblespongiformenceph...pongiform.html


    PPo4-4:

    Survival and Limited Spread of TSE Infectivity after Burial

    http://www.neuroprion.org/resources/..._programme.pdf

    http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogs...rion-2010.html


    Using in vitro prion replication for high sensitive detection of prions and prionlike proteins and for understanding mechanisms of transmission.

    Claudio Soto Mitchell Center for Alzheimer's diseases and related Brain disorders, Department of Neurology, University of Texas Medical School at Houston.

    ***Recently, we have been using PMCA to study the role of environmental prion contamination on the horizontal spreading of TSEs. These experiments have focused on the study of the interaction of prions with plants and environmentally relevant surfaces. Our results show that plants (both leaves and roots) bind tightly to prions present in brain extracts and excreta (urine and feces) and retain even small quantities of PrPSc for long periods of time. Strikingly, ingestion of prioncontaminated leaves and roots produced disease with a 100% attack rate and an incubation period not substantially longer than feeding animals directly with scrapie brain homogenate. Furthermore, plants can uptake prions from contaminated soil and transport them to different parts of the plant tissue (stem and leaves). Similarly, prions bind tightly to a variety of environmentally relevant surfaces, including stones, wood, metals, plastic, glass, cement, etc. Prion contaminated surfaces efficiently transmit prion disease when these materials were directly injected into the brain of animals and strikingly when the contaminated surfaces were just placed in the animal cage. These findings demonstrate that environmental materials can efficiently bind infectious prions and act as carriers of infectivity, suggesting that they may play an important role in the horizontal transmission of the disease.

    ========================

    Since its invention 13 years ago, PMCA has helped to answer fundamental questions of prion propagation and has broad applications in research areas including the food industry, blood bank safety and human and veterinary disease diagnosis.

    https://prion2015.files.wordpress.co...gramguide1.pdf

    http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.4161/pri.28467

    In conclusion, the results in the current study indicate that removal of furniture that had been in contact with scrapie-infected animals should be recommended, particularly since cleaning and decontamination may not effectively remove scrapie infectivity (31), even though infectivity declines considerably if the pasture and the field furniture have not been in contact with scrapie-infected sheep for several months. As sPMCA failed to detect PrPSc in furniture that was subjected to weathering, even though exposure led to infection in sheep, this method may not always be reliable in predicting the risk of scrapie infection through environmental contamination. These results suggest that the VRQ/VRQ sheep model may be more sensitive than sPMCA for the detection of environmentally associated scrapie, and suggest that extremely low levels of scrapie contamination are able to cause infection in susceptible sheep genotypes.

    Keywords: classical scrapie, prion, transmissible spongiform encephalopathy, sheep, field furniture, reservoir, serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification

    http://journal.frontiersin.org/artic...015.00032/full

    Wednesday, December 16, 2015

    *** Objects in contact with classical scrapie sheep act as a reservoir for scrapie transmission ***

    http://scrapie-usa.blogspot.com/2015...classical.html

    *** Infectious agent of sheep scrapie may persist in the environment for at least 16 years ***

    Gudmundur Georgsson1, Sigurdur Sigurdarson2 and Paul Brown3

    http://jgv.sgmjournals.org/content/87/12/3737.full

  7. #27
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    Default Re: Pennsylvania 27 deer from Bedford County farm test positive for CWD

    *** Spraker suggested an interesting explanation for the occurrence of CWD. The deer pens at the Foot Hills Campus were built some 30-40 years ago by a Dr. Bob Davis. At or abut that time, allegedly, some scrapie work was conducted at this site. When deer were introduced to the pens they occupied ground that had previously been occupied by sheep.

    https://web.archive.org/web/20170126...m11b/tab01.pdf

    *** After a natural route of exposure, 100% of WTD were susceptible to scrapie.

    PO-039: A comparison of scrapie and chronic wasting disease in white-tailed deer

    Justin Greenlee, Jodi Smith, Eric Nicholson US Dept. Agriculture; Agricultural Research Service, National Animal Disease Center; Ames, IA USA

    http://www.landesbioscience.com/jour...nd-strains.pdf

    White-tailed deer are susceptible to the agent of sheep scrapie by intracerebral inoculation

    snip...

    It is unlikely that CWD will be eradicated from free-ranging cervids, and the disease is likely to continue to spread geographically [10]. However, the potential that white-tailed deer may be susceptible to sheep scrapie by a natural route presents an additional confounding factor to halting the spread of CWD. This leads to the additional speculations that

    1) infected deer could serve as a reservoir to infect sheep with scrapie offering challenges to scrapie eradication efforts and

    2) CWD spread need not remain geographically confined to current endemic areas, but could occur anywhere that sheep with scrapie and susceptible cervids cohabitate.

    This work demonstrates for the first time that white-tailed deer are susceptible to sheep scrapie by intracerebral inoculation with a high attack rate and that the disease that results has similarities to CWD. These experiments will be repeated with a more natural route of inoculation to determine the likelihood of the potential transmission of sheep scrapie to white-tailed deer. If scrapie were to occur in white-tailed deer, results of this study indicate that it would be detected as a TSE, but may be difficult to differentiate from CWD without in-depth biochemical analysis.

    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/arti...1/?tool=pubmed

    http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogs...ptible-to.html

    2012

    PO-039: A comparison of scrapie and chronic wasting disease in white-tailed deer

    Justin Greenlee, Jodi Smith, Eric Nicholson US Dept. Agriculture; Agricultural Research Service, National Animal Disease Center; Ames, IA USA

    snip...

    The results of this study suggest that there are many similarities in the manifestation of CWD and scrapie in WTD after IC inoculation including early and widespread presence of PrPSc in lymphoid tissues, clinical signs of depression and weight loss progressing to wasting, and an incubation time of 21-23 months. Moreover, western blots (WB) done on brain material from the obex region have a molecular profile similar to CWD and distinct from tissues of the cerebrum or the scrapie inoculum. However, results of microscopic and IHC examination indicate that there are differences between the lesions expected in CWD and those that occur in deer with scrapie: amyloid plaques were not noted in any sections of brain examined from these deer and the pattern of immunoreactivity by IHC was diffuse rather than plaque-like.

    *** After a natural route of exposure, 100% of WTD were susceptible to scrapie.

    Deer developed clinical signs of wasting and mental depression and were necropsied from 28 to 33 months PI. Tissues from these deer were positive for PrPSc by IHC and WB. Similar to IC inoculated deer, samples from these deer exhibited two different molecular profiles: samples from obex resembled CWD whereas those from cerebrum were similar to the original scrapie inoculum. On further examination by WB using a panel of antibodies, the tissues from deer with scrapie exhibit properties differing from tissues either from sheep with scrapie or WTD with CWD. Samples from WTD with CWD or sheep with scrapie are strongly immunoreactive when probed with mAb P4, however, samples from WTD with scrapie are only weakly immunoreactive. In contrast, when probed with mAb’s 6H4 or SAF 84, samples from sheep with scrapie and WTD with CWD are weakly immunoreactive and samples from WTD with scrapie are strongly positive. This work demonstrates that WTD are highly susceptible to sheep scrapie, but on first passage, scrapie in WTD is differentiable from CWD.

    http://www.landesbioscience.com/jour...nd-strains.pdf

    2011

    *** After a natural route of exposure, 100% of white-tailed deer were susceptible to scrapie.

    http://www.usaha.org/Portals/6/Repor...-cwal-2011.pdf

    TUESDAY, MARCH 28, 2017

    *** Passage of scrapie to deer results in a new phenotype upon return passage to sheep ***

    http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogs...esults-in.html

    CWD TO PIGS

    Research Project: TRANSMISSION, DIFFERENTIATION, AND PATHOBIOLOGY OF TRANSMISSIBLE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHIES

    Location: Virus and Prion Research

    Title: Disease-associated prion protein detected in lymphoid tissues from pigs challenged with the agent of chronic wasting disease

    Author item Moore, Sarah item Kunkle, Robert item Kondru, Naveen item Manne, Sireesha item Smith, Jodi item Kanthasamy, Anumantha item West Greenlee, M item Greenlee, Justin

    Submitted to: Prion Publication Type: Abstract Only Publication Acceptance Date: 3/15/2017 Publication Date: N/A Citation: N/A Interpretive Summary:

    Technical Abstract: Aims: Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a naturally-occurring, fatal neurodegenerative disease of cervids. We previously demonstrated that disease-associated prion protein (PrPSc) can be detected in the brain and retina from pigs challenged intracranially or orally with the CWD agent. In that study, neurological signs consistent with prion disease were observed only in one pig: an intracranially challenged pig that was euthanized at 64 months post-challenge. The purpose of this study was to use an antigen-capture immunoassay (EIA) and real-time quaking-induced conversion (QuIC) to determine whether PrPSc is present in lymphoid tissues from pigs challenged with the CWD agent.

    Methods: At two months of age, crossbred pigs were challenged by the intracranial route (n=20), oral route (n=19), or were left unchallenged (n=9). At approximately 6 months of age, the time at which commercial pigs reach market weight, half of the pigs in each group were culled (<6 month challenge groups). The remaining pigs (>6 month challenge groups) were allowed to incubate for up to 73 months post challenge (mpc). The retropharyngeal lymph node (RPLN) was screened for the presence of PrPSc by EIA and immunohistochemistry (IHC). The RPLN, palatine tonsil, and mesenteric lymph node (MLN) from 6-7 pigs per challenge group were also tested using EIA and QuIC.

    Results: PrPSc was not detected by EIA and IHC in any RPLNs. All tonsils and MLNs were negative by IHC, though the MLN from one pig in the oral <6 month group was positive by EIA. PrPSc was detected by QuIC in at least one of the lymphoid tissues examined in 5/6 pigs in the intracranial <6 months group, 6/7 intracranial >6 months group, 5/6 pigs in the oral <6 months group, and 4/6 oral >6 months group. Overall, the MLN was positive in 14/19 (74%) of samples examined, the RPLN in 8/18 (44%), and the tonsil in 10/25 (40%). Conclusions:

    This study demonstrates that PrPSc accumulates in lymphoid tissues from pigs challenged intracranially or orally with the CWD agent, and can be detected as early as 4 months after challenge.

    CWD-infected pigs rarely develop clinical disease and if they do, they do so after a long incubation period. This raises the possibility that CWD-infected pigs could shed prions into their environment long before they develop clinical disease.

    Furthermore, lymphoid tissues from CWD-infected pigs could present a potential source of CWD infectivity in the animal and human food chains.

    https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/pu...eqNo115=337105

    CONFIDENTIAL

    EXPERIMENTAL PORCINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY

    While this clearly is a cause for concern we should not jump to the conclusion that this means that pigs will necessarily be infected by bone and meat meal fed by the oral route as is the case with cattle. ...

    http://web.archive.org/web/200310260...8/23004001.pdf

    we cannot rule out the possibility that unrecognised subclinical spongiform encephalopathy could be present in British pigs though there is no evidence for this: only with parenteral/implantable pharmaceuticals/devices is the theoretical risk to humans of sufficient concern to consider any action.

    http://web.archive.org/web/200308220...9/10007001.pdf

    Our records show that while some use is made of porcine materials in medicinal products, the only products which would appear to be in a hypothetically ''higher risk'' area are the adrenocorticotrophic hormone for which the source material comes from outside the United Kingdom, namely America China Sweden France and Germany. The products are manufactured by Ferring and Armour. A further product, ''Zenoderm Corium implant'' manufactured by Ethicon, makes use of porcine skin - which is not considered to be a ''high risk'' tissue, but one of its uses is described in the data sheet as ''in dural replacement''. This product is sourced from the United Kingdom.....

    http://web.archive.org/web/200308220...9/21009001.pdf

    snip...see much more here ;

    WEDNESDAY, APRIL 05, 2017

    Disease-associated prion protein detected in lymphoid tissues from pigs challenged with the agent of chronic wasting disease

    http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogs...n-protein.html

    WEDNESDAY, APRIL 05, 2017

    *** Disease-associated prion protein detected in lymphoid tissues from pigs challenged with the agent of chronic wasting disease ***

    http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogs...n-protein.html


    CWD TO CATTLE

    ***In contrast, cattle are highly susceptible to white-tailed deer CWD and mule deer CWD in experimental conditions but no natural CWD infections in cattle have been reported (Sigurdson, 2008; Hamir et al., 2006). It is not known how susceptible humans are to CWD but given that the prion can be present in muscle, it is likely that humans have been exposed to the agent via consumption of venison (Sigurdson, 2008). Initial experimental research, however, suggests that human susceptibility to CWD is low and there may be a robust species barrier for CWD transmission to humans (Sigurdson, 2008). It is apparent, though, that CWD is affecting wild and farmed cervid populations in endemic areas with some deer populations decreasing as a result.

    SNIP...

    https://www.gov.uk/government/upload...ng-disease.pdf

    price of prion poker goes up for cwd to cattle;

    Monday, April 04, 2016

    *** Limited amplification of chronic wasting disease prions in the peripheral tissues of intracerebrally inoculated cattle ***

    http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogs...f-chronic.html

    *USA USDA CWD BSE SCRAPIE TSE PRION?

    3. Prof. A. Robertson gave a brief account of BSE. The US approach was to accord it a very low profile indeed. Dr. A Thiermann showed the picture in the ''Independent'' with cattle being incinerated and thought this was a fanatical incident to be avoided in the US at all costs. ...

    http://web.archive.org/web/200603070...m11b/tab01.pdf

    Evidence That Transmissible Mink Encephalopathy Results from Feeding Infected Cattle Over the next 8-10 weeks, approximately 40% of all the adult mink on the farm died from TME. snip... The rancher was a ''dead stock'' feeder using mostly (>95%) downer or dead dairy cattle...

    https://web.archive.org/web/20060614.../m09/tab05.pdf

    https://web.archive.org/web/20041028...m09a/tab01.pdf

    https://web.archive.org/web/20041028...6/10004001.pdf

    In Confidence - Perceptions of unconventional slow virus diseases of animals in the USA - APRIL-MAY 1989 - G A H Wells 3. Prof. A. Robertson gave a brief account of BSE. The US approach was to accord it a very low profile indeed. Dr. A Thiermann showed the picture in the ''Independent'' with cattle being incinerated and thought this was a fanatical incident to be avoided in the US at all costs. ...

    http://web.archive.org/web/200603070...m11b/tab01.pdf

    The occurrence of CWD must be viewed against the contest of the locations in which it occurred. It was an incidental and unwelcome complication of the respective wildlife research programmes. Despite its subsequent recognition as a new disease of cervids, therefore justifying direct investigation, no specific research funding was forthcoming. The USDA veiwed it as a wildlife problem and consequently not their province! ...page 26.

    https://web.archive.org/web/20060517...m11b/tab01.pdf

    URINE

    SUNDAY, JULY 16, 2017

    *** Temporal patterns of chronic wasting disease prion excretion in three cervid species ***

    http://chronic-wasting-disease.blogs...c-wasting.html


    TITLE: PATHOLOGICAL FEATURES OF CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE IN REINDEER AND DEMONSTRATION OF HORIZONTAL TRANSMISSION

    https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/pu...eqNo115=328261


    *** DECEMBER 2016 CDC EMERGING INFECTIOUS DISEASE JOURNAL CWD HORIZONTAL TRANSMISSION

    http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/22/12/16-0635_article


    *** INFECTIOUS AGENT OF SHEEP SCRAPIE MAY PERSIST IN THE ENVIRONMENT FOR AT LEAST 16 YEARS ***

    GUDMUNDUR GEORGSSON1, SIGURDUR SIGURDARSON2 AND PAUL BROWN3

    http://jgv.sgmjournals.org/content/87/12/3737.full

  8. #28
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    Default Re: Pennsylvania 27 deer from Bedford County farm test positive for CWD

    DAMN! And I always thought boiling water and / or explosives killed everything.

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